New High-Performance Provisioned IOPS Storage for Amazon RDS

Posted in: Cloud Computing, Enterprise Java

Today AWS announced that it is extending the provisioned IOPS concept already available for EBS volumes to RDS instances. So just like with EBS volumes you can now not only provision the storage size associated with an RDS instance, but also the performance of the RDS instance. This is a great improvement for AWS customers who want to run high-performance applications on RDS as they can now pay for the performance they need.

Remember that RDS is a very easy service to leverage from enterprise Java applications because the databases can be made available through a standard JDBC interface. This means that there is absolutely no difference in terms of the Java code when using an RDS hosted MySQL instance, versus a MySQL instance hosted on your own in-house server, or even hosted on an EC2 instance for example.

Here is the official announcement:

We are excited to announce the availability of Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS, a new high-performance storage option for the Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS). Amazon RDS makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a MySQL, Oracle, or SQL Server database in the cloud — and now enables you to provision up to 10,000 IOPS (input/output operations per second) with 1TB of storage for your new database instances.

Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS is optimized for I/O-intensive, transactional (OLTP) database workloads. We are delivering this functionality to you in two stages. Starting immediately, when you create new database instances using the AWS Management Console or the Amazon RDS APIs, you can provision from 1,000 IOPS to 10,000 IOPS with corresponding storage from 100GB to 1TB for MySQL and Oracle databases. If you are using SQL Server then the maximum IOPS you can provision is 7,000 IOPS.

In the near future, we plan to provide you with an automated way to migrate existing database instances to Provisioned IOPS storage for the MySQL and Oracle database engines. If you want to migrate an existing RDS database instance to Provisioned IOPS storage immediately, you can export the data from your existing database instance and import into a new database instance equipped with Provisioned IOPS storage.

Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS can be used with all RDS features like Multi-AZ, Read Replicas, and Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), and with all RDS-supported database engines (MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server). Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS is immediately available for new database instances in the US East (N. Virginia), US West (N. California), and EU West (Ireland) Regions. We plan to launch in our other AWS Regions in the coming months.

Oracle Doesn’t Mention Java – Does It Matter?

Posted in: Enterprise Java

The following image is available on the Oracle website currently (original URL):

For me personally the 2 biggest questions about the whole deal have always been What happens to MySQL? and What happens to Java?

MySQL has always been open source and Java has been creeping slowly towards open source over the last few years.

Can Oracle really kill either of these technologies if they chose too? Probably not outright, but they could certainly damage their reputation and community support. People can fork code bases and start again, but it would take time (many years) to build back up to the flagships they are today.

The above image from Oracle is interesting in that it does call out MySQL but does not mention Java at all.

Perhaps Oracle sees more value in MySQL than Java and is attempting to protect it better. Or perhaps Oracle believes Java needs less protection than MySQL, after all, much of the debate over the Oracle/Sun deal has surrounded MySQL and not Java.

Wednesday is the day when some of these questions will hopefully begin to answered.

Why do you think Oracle called out MySQL and not Java?

So Long And Thanks For All The Glassfish

Posted in: Enterprise Java

Well, it seems almost official now, Oracle will get it hands on Sun and the Java and MySQL communities (among others) will need to hold their breath and wait to see what kind of chaos this might cause for our industries.

James Gosling (the father of Java) has long been publishing Java related images on his internal Sun blog. He has now posted his very last one.

The best comment I saw so far was “So long and thanks for all the Glassfish”.

You can read the original post here.

Installing JBoss Portal

Posted in: Enterprise Java, System Administration

Today I finished a successful fresh install of JBoss Portal. Below is the process I followed.

Versions

  • JBoss Portal — 2.7.2 (bundled with JBoss AS 4.2.3)
  • JavaSE — 5.0 Update 19
  • MySQL — 5.1.34 (Community Edition)
  • Linux Flavor — Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 5.2 (64 bit)

Step 1 – Downloads

  1. I grabbed the Java installer from here http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index_jdk5.jsp. The downloaded file was called jdk-1_5_0_19-linux-amd64-rpm.bin
  2. I grabbed the Portal binaries from here http://www.jboss.org/jbossportal/download/index.html. The downloaded file was called jboss-portal-2.7.2-bundled.zip
  3. I grabbed the MySQL binary from here http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.1.html#linux-rhel5-x86-64bit-rpms. I downloaded the server (MySQL-server-community-5.1.34-0.rhel5.x86_64.rpm) and the client (MySQL-client-community-5.1.34-0.rhel5.x86_64.rpm) RPMs
  4. I grabbed the MySQL JDBC driver from this page http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j/5.1.html. The downloaded file was called mysql-connector-java-5.1.7.tar.gz

Step 2 – Install JavaSE

  1. I made the installer executable

    $ chmod +x jdk-1_5_0_19-linux-amd64-rpm.bin
  2. Then executed the installer

    $ ./jdk-1_5_0_19-linux-amd64-rpm.bin
  3. I paged through endless legal boilerplate and accepted it by typing yes and hitting enter (hopefully I didn’t sell my soul)
  4. The installer extracted the RPM file and installed it.
    I double checked the package was installed by querying the RPM database:

    $ rpm -q jdk
    jdk-1.5.0_19-fcs
    $

    This RPM installed all of the files into /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_19

  5. I edited the /etc/profile file to make the JAVA_HOME environment variable and Java binaries available to everyone on the box. I added the following lines to achieve this

    export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.5.0_19
    export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin
  6. I double checked it all worked

    $ source /etc/profile
    $ echo $JAVA_HOME
    /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_19
    $

Step 3 – Deploy Portal Binaries

  1. I am never sure the correct place in a Linux distribution to put 3rd party stuff, but I went with /usr/local this time

    $ pwd
    /usr/local
    $ unzip ~/jboss-portal-2.7.2-bundled.zip

    This created the directory /usr/local/jboss-portal-2.7.2

  2. Once again, I edited the /etc/profile file to add the JBoss environment to it by adding the following line

    export JBOSS_HOME=/usr/local/jboss-portal-2.7.2

    Then I tested it

    $ source /etc/profile
    $ echo $JBOSS_HOME
    /usr/local/jboss-portal-2.7.2
    $

Step 4 – Change Default Port (Optional)
For my install I have no need to run Apache in front of JBoss, so I want JBoss to listen (or more correctly, have Tomcat listen) directly on port 80 – by default it listens on 8080.

  1. I opened the $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/jboss-web.deployer/server.xml file, (which is a standard Tomcat configuration file) in an editor.
  2. I changed the port of the HTTP connector to 80 (you can find it by searching for 8080). I also change the HTTPS connector to use 443 (you can find this one by searching for 8443). I then changed the value of the redirectPort attribute of the HTTP connector to match.

Step 5 – Change Portal to be the root web app. (Optional)
For my install, the Portal will be the main application on the server, so I want it to be accessible from the root of the server, and not have to enter the portal context path all of the time.

  1. First, I disabled the current root application

    $ mv $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/jboss-web.deployer/ROOT.war $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/jboss-web.deployer/ROOT.war.old
  2. I opened the $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/jboss-portal.sar/portal-server.war/WEB-INF/jboss-web.xml file, in an editor.
  3. I found the <context -root> tag and changed the vallue to be just a single forward slash character.

    <context-root>/</context-root>
  4. I saved the file and exited the editor.

Step 6 – Install MySQL
By default, JBoss Portal will use a Hypersonic database for all of its internal data. My environment will be a production environment, so I want to use something more robust.

  1. I Installed the MySQL binaries by using a normal RPM install

    $ rpm -ivh MySQL-server-community-5.1.34-0.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
    $ rpm -ivh MySQL-client-community-5.1.34-0.rhel5.x86_64.rpm

    The installation process started the mysqld service automatically. It also installed MySQL as a service automatically.

  2. I checked that it was running

    $ mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin Ver 8.42 Distrib 5.1.34, for unknown-linux-gnu on x86_64
    Copyright 2000-2008 MySQL AB, 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
    and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license

    Server version 5.1.34-community
    Protocol version 10
    Connection Localhost via UNIX socket
    UNIX socket /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
    Uptime: 5 hours 29 min 16 sec

    Threads: 1 Questions: 5 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 15 Flush tables: 1 Open tables: 8 Queries per second avg: 0.0
    $

There are a lot of things you might want to do to a base MySQL install before putting it into production, but that is beyond the scope of this document. I would start with this link for some of the things you need to consider: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/unix-post-installation.html

Step 7 – Point the Portal at MySQL

  1. I connected to the MySQL server running on localhost, as the current user (which happened to be root in my case).

    $ mysql
    Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or g.
    Your MySQL connection id is 15
    Server version: 5.1.34-community MySQL Community Server (GPL)

    Type ‘help;’ or ‘h’ for help. Type ‘c’ to clear the current input statement.

    mysql>

  2. I created a Database instance for the Portal to use

    mysql> CREATE DATABASE jbossportal;
    Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
  3. Then I created a user for the Portal to connect as

    mysql> CREATE USER ‘portal’@'localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘portalpassword’;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
  4. Then I granted all privileges for the jbossportal Database to the user I just created

    mysql> GRANT ALL ON jbossportal.* TO ‘portal’@'localhost’;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    At this point I quit the MySQL interpreter.

  5. Next, I untared the MySQL JDBC driver

    $ tar zxvf mysql-connector-java-5.1.7.tar.gz
  6. Then I copied the driver jar file to the $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/lib/ directory

    $ cp mysql-connector-java-5.1.7/mysql-connector-java-5.1.7-bin.jar $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/lib
  7. Next I disabled the original Hypersonic datasource

    $ mv $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/portal-hsqldb-ds.xml $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/portal-hsqldb-ds.xml.bak
  8. Then I deployed a datasource descriptor for MySQL. There is an example datasource descriptor in the JBoss Portal binary distribution

    $ cp $JBOSS_HOME/setup/portal-mysql5-ds.xml $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy

    I double checked the username, password and database name settings in the file were correct

Step 9 – Check Your Work
Now I checked my handy work before moving on to the next step.

  1. I made the JBoss run script executable
    $ chmod +x $JBOSS_HOME/bin/run.sh
  2. Next I ran the script
    $ $JBOSS_HOME/bin/run.sh

    It will take a while but, eventually the server will finish booting.

  3. Now I hit the basic JBoss AS home page at this URL: http://myserver/ and made sure it looked OK.
  4. Then I hit the JBoss Portal page at this URL: http://myserver/portal and checked it as well.

If you have trouble accessing your URL, there could be an issue with the address that JBoss is listening on. This can be caused by various issues with your server setup (hostname, hosts file etc.). One quick thing to try is to pass -b 0.0.0.0 as an argument to the run.sh script – this tells JBoss to listen on all addresses, which might help you figure out where the issue is.

Step 10 – Setup JBoss Portal as a Service

  1. I opened the file $JBOSS_HOME/bin/jboss_init_redhat.sh in an editor.
  2. First I double checked the environment variables set at the top of the file (particularly JBOSS_HOME and JBOSS_USER) were correct.
  3. Then at the very top of the file, below the shebang line, I added the following 3 lines to make the script compatible with the chkconfig system

    # Comments to support chkconfig
    # chkconfig: 2345 80 40
    # description: JBoss Portal

    I saved the file and exited the editor.

  4. Then I made it executable

    $ chmod +x $JBOSS_HOME/bin/jboss_init_redhat.sh
  5. Next I linked the script into the init.d directory

    $ ln -s $JBOSS_HOME/bin/jboss_init_redhat.sh /etc/init.d/jboss
  6. Then I ran chkconfig to register the script for the correct run levels

    $ chkconfig –add jboss
  7. I then started the server by hand to double check my work and also just to get the server up and running without having to do a reboot

    $ service jboss start
  8. Then I hit the JBoss Portal page once again and checked that it came up properly

Step 11 – Have A Beer
It is always appropriate to reward yourself with a craft, micro-brewed or home-brewed beer!